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A 2-year-old trick that still has the wool pulled over sheeple's eyes.
by BraveNewWorldOrderFighter Friday, Oct. 31, 2003 at 6:51 AM
BraveNewWorldOrderFighter@yahoo.com

"for Pittsburgh Indymedia because I'm from Pittsburgh" For Hallowe'en 2003, a tried-and-true TRICK from the distant past that still has many sheeple blinded by the wool pulled over their eyes.

A 2-year-old trick t...
11_9.jpghbsulx.jpg, image/jpeg, 700x404

As many sheeple fondly remember Reagan and his astrologer-wife as the best leaders we ever had, let us consider the men behind that Hollywood couple: Dick Cheney, Donald Rumsfeld, Paul Wolfowitz, Lewis Libby, Richard Perle, ad nauseum: They're ba-a-a-ack!

Project for the New American Century, statement of principles, BY THE AUTHORS

http://www.newamericancentury.org/statementofprinciples.htm

June 3, 1997

American foreign and defense policy is adrift. Conservatives have criticized the incoherent policies of the Clinton Administration. They have also resisted isolationist impulses from within their own ranks. But conservatives have not confidently advanced a strategic vision of America's role in the world. They have not set forth guiding principles for American foreign policy. They have allowed differences over tactics to obscure potential agreement on strategic objectives. And they have not fought for a defense budget that would maintain American security and advance American interests in the new century.

We aim to change this. We aim to make the case and rally support for American global leadership.


As the 20th century draws to a close, the United States stands as the world's preeminent power. Having led the West to victory in the Cold War, America faces an opportunity and a challenge: Does the United States have the vision to build upon the achievements of past decades? Does the United States have the resolve to shape a new century favorable to American principles and interests?


We are in danger of squandering the opportunity and failing the challenge. We are living off the capital -- both the military investments and the foreign policy achievements -- built up by past administrations. Cuts in foreign affairs and defense spending, inattention to the tools of statecraft, and inconstant leadership are making it increasingly difficult to sustain American influence around the world. And the promise of short-term commercial benefits threatens to override strategic considerations. As a consequence, we are jeopardizing the nation's ability to meet present threats and to deal with potentially greater challenges that lie ahead.

We seem to have forgotten the essential elements of the Reagan Administration's success: a military that is strong and ready to meet both present and future challenges; a foreign policy that boldly and purposefully promotes American principles abroad; and national leadership that accepts the United States' global responsibilities.


Of course, the United States must be prudent in how it exercises its power. But we cannot safely avoid the responsibilities of global leadership or the costs that are associated with its exercise. America has a vital role in maintaining peace and security in Europe, Asia, and the Middle East. If we shirk our responsibilities, we invite challenges to our fundamental interests. The history of the 20th century should have taught us that it is important to shape circumstances before crises emerge, and to meet threats before they become dire. The history of this century should have taught us to embrace the cause of American leadership.

Our aim is to remind Americans of these lessons and to draw their consequences for today. Here are four consequences:

• we need to increase defense spending significantly if we are to carry out our global
responsibilities today and modernize our armed forces for the future;


• we need to strengthen our ties to democratic allies and to challenge regimes hostile to our interests and values;


• we need to promote the cause of political and economic freedom abroad;


• we need to accept responsibility for America's unique role in preserving and extending an international order friendly to our security, our prosperity, and our principles.

Such a Reaganite policy of military strength and moral clarity may not be fashionable today. But it is necessary if the United States is to build on the successes of this past century and to ensure our security and our greatness in the next.

Elliott Abrams Gary Bauer William J. Bennett Jeb Bush

Dick Cheney Eliot A. Cohen Midge Decter Paula Dobriansky Steve Forbes

Aaron Friedberg Francis Fukuyama Frank Gaffney Fred C. Ikle

Donald Kagan Zalmay Khalilzad I. Lewis Libby Norman Podhoretz

Dan Quayle Peter W. Rodman Stephen P. Rosen Henry S. Rowen

Donald Rumsfeld Vin Weber George Weigel Paul Wolfowitz

These men said that the American people would be hard-pressed to go along with this agenda unless there was a "new Pearl Harbor" to spur them.
~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~

Trust us, we're from the government and we're here to help. SHUDDER.

For some substantial sustenance instead of the gooey, sticky, tricky treats stuffed into our faces all these years, try:
http://www.FunkSpace.com
http://www.WhatReallyHappened
http://www.legitgov.org (Citizens for a Legitimate Government)

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Do you see a Boeing 757 commercial aircraft here?
by BraveNewWorldOrderFighter Friday, Oct. 31, 2003 at 6:51 AM
BraveNewWorldOrderFighter@yahoo.com

Do you see a Boeing ...
before_1.jpgm7niv9.jpg, image/jpeg, 640x417

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Here's AA Flight 77 actually hitting the Pentagon...so I am told.
by BraveNewWorldOrderFighter Friday, Oct. 31, 2003 at 6:51 AM
BraveNewWorldOrderFighter@yahoo.com

Here's AA Flight 77 ...
e-pentagon_animation.gif, image/png, 322x218

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Before the Pentagon wall collapsed into a tidy heap...
by BraveNewWorldOrderFighter Friday, Oct. 31, 2003 at 6:51 AM
BraveNewWorldOrderFighter@yahoo.com

Before the Pentagon ...
pentagonintact.jpgflxqxn.jpg, image/jpeg, 307x155

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Can you spell H-O-L-O-G-R-A-M?
by BraveNewWorldOrderFighter Friday, Oct. 31, 2003 at 6:51 AM
BraveNewWorldOrderFighter@yahoo.com

Can you spell H-O-L-...
wtc2anim.gif, image/png, 194x145

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hologram
by rob Wednesday, Nov. 05, 2003 at 10:02 AM

if you get some of robert shapiros information (sedona journal) he describes the holographic projector as a circular or oval shaped object on the bottom of what ever is carrying it.
this info came out 10 years ago.look at the bottom of flight 175 and you'll see the projector.good luck.

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hologram
by rob Wednesday, Nov. 05, 2003 at 10:02 AM

if you get some of robert shapiros information (sedona journal) he describes the holographic projector as a circular or oval shaped object on the bottom of what ever is carrying it.
this info came out 10 years ago.look at the bottom of flight 175 and you'll see the projector.good luck.

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fantastic stupidity
by stupidity detector Wednesday, Nov. 05, 2003 at 10:22 AM

You spam this place with the same old Pentagon images. Yeah, I've questioned the idea that they haven't found, or talked about, even a molecule of the remains of the plane or occupants.

But then you come in here with some sewage over the Towers, and "holograms". What kind of insane asylum refugee are you?

The second plane hitting has been documented from so many angles, both towers witnessed falling by so many people. All those people injured, or at the very least covered in human dust, were "projections"?

Oopsie! I made a funny. We all know how incredibly mentally disturbed Leftists project their infirmity on others....

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another hologram
by BraveNewWorldOrderFighter Monday, Nov. 10, 2003 at 4:43 PM

another hologram...
nyt09.jpg, image/jpeg, 434x321

It's obvious that this never happened.

<p>I've never seen <b>one</b> single person that was on that plane appear on Oprah's show.

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another hologram
by BraveNewWorldOrderFighter Monday, Nov. 10, 2003 at 4:48 PM

another hologram...
wtc16.jpg, image/jpeg, 640x519

This was taken during a volcanic eruption in Berkeley, and was photoshopped by ILM.

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another hologram
by BraveNewWorldOrderFighter Monday, Nov. 10, 2003 at 4:51 PM

another hologram...
autopsy32.jpg, image/jpeg, 419x331

This was supposedly one of the victims of the WTC.

It's the purple one, I think.

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yet another hologram
by BraveNewWorldOrderFighter Monday, Nov. 10, 2003 at 5:07 PM

yet another hologram...
brain_hologram.jpg, image/jpeg, 369x330

This is a hologram of my brain, I think. It was taken by one of the Grays while I was asleep. Art Bell gave them directions to my house. He's a good friend of mine. They came right through the wall. Scared my iguana.

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Imitation is the sincerest form of flattery.
by BraveNewWorldOrderFighter Monday, Nov. 10, 2003 at 5:29 PM
BraveNewWorldOrderFighter@yahoo.com

Imitation is the sin...
11_9.jpgtfhrlj.jpg, image/jpeg, 700x404

Geez, I even posted a mea culpa about the hologram, so get over it, already.

But truth truly is stranger than fiction. The technology in fact exists to accomplish a holographic trick as big as an airplane flying into a building. I trust that what we all saw at the WTC on television was the real thing.

However, there is still no reasonable explanation for the obvious lack of an airplane at the Pentagon. This picture--originally from http://www.defenselink.mil but, oddly enough, no longer there--shows the wall that stood intact for 25 minutes before collapsing into a tidy, squared-off heap.

I'm flattered that you like my name so much that you are calling yourself by it. I presume that discerning readers will be able to easily distinguish between us.

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another hologram
by BraveNewWorldOrderFighter Monday, Nov. 10, 2003 at 5:52 PM

another hologram...
lice_storm_1.jpg, image/jpeg, 350x263

That post was from someone who is obviously flattered. Like rachel Corrie.

This is the real me. Honest. And I can prove it.

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Brave New Mea Culpa Fighter
by Holograms R Us Monday, Nov. 10, 2003 at 8:16 PM

You offer a mea culpa, then turn right around and act as if it was still possible. So, in other words, you really do believe it was a hologram.

Art Bell rolls in the dough because of brain dead shills like you.

And what's so strange about an image not being available anymore. Web sites do change over time. You've heard of those girls the Kinleys? They're from PA, right? They've faded away, and so have some of the images on their fan sites. That's not a hologram, just common sense.

You really are obsessed with this. I've got a nice rack of tin foil derbies for sale. Interested?

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Irv, step away from the computer
by USS Liberty Tuesday, Nov. 11, 2003 at 2:13 AM

You trolled for 18 hours yesterday. Go outside or something.

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troll for this-you might get lucky
by USS Pustule Tuesday, Nov. 11, 2003 at 7:15 AM

How nice of you to keep up.

I have a groupie.

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another hologram
by BraveNewWorldOrderFighter Tuesday, Nov. 11, 2003 at 11:47 AM

another hologram...
m02.jpg, image/jpeg, 582x472

This is absolute undeniable proof that the plane hitting the WTC was a hologram. In the frame on the right side, you see an explosion. But where is the plane? Planes just don't disappear. And why wasn't there an explosion in the image on the left? The plane is there. Explosions don't simply disappear.

These images don't match, and my fists are clenched with seething rage over the Government destroying a building using a hologram, which has no mass or weight and occupies no physical space.

It's obvious that the gray aliens will do anything when government agents torture them and force strawberry ice cream into them intravenously. I think it's a hate crime.

I want this statist administration to acknowledge we need their advanced technology to save the whales in their natural and pristine form, as seen on Star Trek 4.

I have a dog.

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You may laugh now, but ...
by BraveNewHologramFighter Tuesday, Nov. 11, 2003 at 12:11 PM

When you finally realize that your office building is just one big hologram and you really can't be sitting at your desk on the 15th floor you will be sorry. It will be just like in those Matrix movies. Holograms are the biggest threat to our civil liberties. No wait, holograms are the biggest threat to our very existence. The government has been tracking us with holograms. Do you ever wonder why so many people don' t talk to you on the bus? It is because they are government holograms. I have noticed that alot of people seem to avoid me all together, that is how I know which ones are the holograms. All those people on that plane that "hit" the Pentagon were just holograms. When a hologram hits a building it can make the building explode. There are holograms on our credit cards. Sometimes these are in pretty designs to distract us. My dog even wrote a haiku about it.

Have a Teddy Graham
It was just a hologram
It didn't happen

My teeth are clenched
In psychotic fits of rage
My dog talks to me

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that's not funny
by BraveNewWorldOrderFighter Tuesday, Nov. 11, 2003 at 1:28 PM

Go ahead and make fun of me. But the truth will win out.

What the Bush Administration won't tell you is what happened to my uncle. He was in New York City the very day of the big blackout. He was in one of the executive washrooms on the 912 floor of the Chrysler Building, taking a dump, minding his own business. When the power went out, his naked ass fell at least 20 miles and plummeted into the pavement.

When the power finally came back on, my sister, who worked at the Baskin Robbins in Bed-Stuy, found her arm frozen solid inside a 50 gallon bucket of mint chocolate chip.

On the Avenue of the Americas, a cab driver lost control since the steering wheel vanished and careened into a crowd of Hussein appeasers, killing all lice on board.

There are thousands of classified reports on missing people. My anus is clenched in twisted rage. I think Al Gore should demand Bush be impeached. Or unplugged.

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Haiku Of Protest
by 2Beers Wednesday, Nov. 12, 2003 at 5:34 AM

It is good to see that there are those out there who have picked up the "Poetry of Protest" flag. It will be great when all postings include a haiku. Imitation is the greatest form of flattery ( but actually, the business end of a Caterpillar D-9 is a pretty good form of flattery too). I even wrote a haiku about it.

If you like haiku
Poem of Protest is for you
You can heckle too

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a haiku, maybe?
by Irving Wednesday, Nov. 12, 2003 at 8:21 AM

I don't know nothing about no haiku's, the structure or cadence, so this might not be tecnically correct.

But it's politically incorrect, and if it makes weak bladdered Leftists flood the storm drains, then all the better.

Rachel Corrie is flat

How about dat?

SPLAT!

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TO THE IMC EDITORS AND BNWOF !!!
by 2Beers Wednesday, Nov. 12, 2003 at 12:52 PM

TO THE IMC EDITORS A...
mc_harmstupid.jpg, image/jpeg, 177x240

In my return to the always entertaining IMC pages today (yesterday was a government holiday as it was Verterans Day), I fell upon the relentless rantings of "Irv" "Irving" and a cadre of posters named as Navy vessels. I was trying to figure out this whole "Little Precious" thing, which I can't really, and it is becoming rather Norman Bates-ish, but we can get to that later. So I checked into the Editorial Discussions to see what I might have missed while I was out honoring our noble veterans and hoisting a few with America's finest (trust me, that involved more than 2 beers). And there I found http://howard.indypgh.org/pipermail/imc-pgh-editorial/2003-November/001142.html in which the ubiquitous "BraveNewWorldOrderFighter" seems to accuse me of posting the numerous parodies, ramblings, and derogations of her theories.

I must say now that it is not I, 2Beers, who has posted those. That is alot of posting, that even I do not have time for. I was impressed and mildly flattered that someone used a haiku in one of those postings, but that is about it. (BTW - "Irving" your haiku needs work. "BNWOF" posted a memorable quip about haik structure in an earlier string that I recommend)

However, I think that particular "hecklage" of BNWOF's hologram theories (as bizarre as they are) has run it's course. BNWOF you are certainly a kook, but you are our kook and we respect you for that, and that is why 2Beers would be much more direct with his "hecklage". You will note that I do not have any need not to post under the identified 2Beers brandname. Although a pretender or two have attempted to post under the 2Beers name, but we seem to have gotten that straightened out.

So I hope you get that resolved, but BNWOF I already have that elitist bugtussle, Ewan Kenkesmearse, atttacking me, calling me names and otherwise trying to bash 2Beers. I don't need you piling on and causing more problems. God forbid that I may end up as an integral player in one of your conspiracy theories.

I was only away for one day, and it seems that IMC has degenerated into anarchy and chaos (which I guess is what you leftists anarchists want and I was probably standing in your way so I shouldn't be too surprised). What the hell is goign on here? Who is "Little Precious"? It sounds like a personal thing to me. What's up with all the "Irv" positngs? What the hell is this whole "USS [fillin blank]" stuff? I am afraid I may have missed far too much to be able to contribute in any meaningful way to this on going discussion. Which is unfortunate, because you all know how well I can contribute to the ongoing discussion, especially when it raises good heckling opportunity.

I am afraid that the "Irv" contingent may be approaching the "cyberslam" all wrong. You are not going to catch alot of fish if you spend too much time slapping your paddle against the water (how's that for a softball lob to all of you leftists looking for a "witty" retort). You need to sit back and wait for the hatch to go off and then start reelin' 'em in. ya see, your typical leftist pro-terrorist America-hating IMCer can not fair well in the ring of intellectual pugilism. They are far too gangly and tend to lead with their chin. They will just lay up that stuff about "no plane hit the Pentiagon" "No one beleived Saddam had WOMD" "The US presence in Iraq is a destabilizing force in the world, we need to get out fast (like in Somalia)" or "Arafat only wants peace." Then you can jump in there and spank them sensible with their own stupidity and hypocrisy.

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my comment title
by BraveNewWorldOrderFighter Wednesday, Nov. 12, 2003 at 5:33 PM

my comment title...
fly_that_hologram.jpg, image/jpeg, 416x600

I suppose I'm to write something insightful here, but since I believe in holograms, nobody will take me seriously.

Mea Culpa....

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Sounds like the scream of one who has woken from a nightmare in a real burning bedroom.
by BraveNewWorldOrderFighter Wednesday, Nov. 12, 2003 at 6:27 PM
BraveNewWorldOrderFighter@yahoo.com

Sounds like the scre...
scream2.jpg, image/jpeg, 250x310

To whomever is posting falsely under my name, I remind you that I said (in my 2nd mea culpa): I TRUST THAT WHAT WE ALL SAW AT THE WTC ON TELEVISION WAS THE REAL THING. Not a hologram.

The fact remains that the technology exists.

I woke up from my personal nightmare--that Fascism could happen to us--into the real burning bedroom that it already has on the evening of February 23, 2003, when I suddenly realized that there is no wreckage of a Boeing 757 commercial airliner in pictures of the Pentagon on September 11, nor even an airplane-shaped hole in the steel-reinforced granite wall that stood intact for 25 minutes before it collapsed into a tidy heap. I've been screaming ever since.
****************************************************
Imitation is the sincerest form of flattery.
by BraveNewWorldOrderFighter • Monday November 10, 2003 at 10:29 PM
BraveNewWorldOrderFighter@yahoo.com



11_9.jpgtfhrlj.jpg, JPG image, 700x404

Geez, I even posted a mea culpa about the hologram, so get over it, already.

But truth truly is stranger than fiction. The technology in fact exists to accomplish a holographic trick as big as an airplane flying into a building. I trust that what we all saw at the WTC on television was the real thing.

However, there is still no reasonable explanation for the obvious lack of an airplane at the Pentagon. This picture--originally from http://www.defenselink.mil but, oddly enough, no longer there--shows the wall that stood intact for 25 minutes before collapsing into a tidy, squared-off heap.

I'm flattered that you like my name so much that you are calling yourself by it. I presume that discerning readers will be able to easily distinguish between us.

~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~


And, I still presume that discerning readers will be able to easily distinguish between us. Your dishonesty in posting under my name is, well, dishonest. That's on you.

Are members of the IMC editorial collective interested in this issue of posting falsely under another's name?

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anal retentive
by truthteller Wednesday, Nov. 12, 2003 at 6:33 PM

"Are members of the IMC editorial collective interested in this issue of posting falsely under another's name?"

Do you realize how chillingly idiotic you sound?

Every single IMC is loaded with made up names. Likely 98 percent is fakes. Anyone who is this anal retentive about a FAKE name needs to find themselves some Prozac, and fast.

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put up or shut up
by Irving Wednesday, Nov. 12, 2003 at 7:51 PM

BraveNewWorldOrderFighter, it's about time somebody called you out. No more of this "mea culpa" crap while saying the technology exists, which is your sorry way of still clinging to your fantasies.

With all due respect to 2beers, who said that though, in so many words, "he/she/it's nuts but one of ours", I'm going to assume that whatever you are, you're an American, which means you're one of my fellow countrymen, and I'm going to make you put your money where your mouth is when it comes to all this America hating cum Art Bell conspiracy shit. I'm just a simple man, and I'm going to ask questions in simple layman's terms. All the same, they're questions any critically thinking 4th grader can ask. As Carl Sagan said, "extraordinary claims require extraordinary evidence".

****************

Were the holograms digital or analog?

Were they tracked by radar? Are any radar recordings in existence? If so, please explain how holograms can reflect radar beams.

What powers the holograms? Nuclear? How many watts is needed to create a moving airliner able to crash into and destroy a skyscraper? If the power source wasn't nuclear, then what was it? What was the size of the power source?

Any reports of people getting strange skin lesions or burns in the immediate area? Reports of the type of blood disorders that electrocution victims suffer?

Any news reports of strange disturbances when the "plane" flew towards the tower? Elevators stalling? Televisions and video monitors affected? Cell phones squealing in people's ears or bursting into flames in their hands? Video cameras blanking or flickering as if in a strong magnetic field? Why weren't video tapes erased? Or at least severely affected? Considering every news organization in the MEDIA CENTER OF THE WORLD was mobilizing crews on the scene after the first plane hit, how could the reports have continued unimpeded?

What of film cameras? It's well known that you shouldn't allow film to go through X-ray machines at airports. Why didn't something that obviously was powerful enough to warp time and space wipe out all film? Any reports of "one hour photo" centers in the area losing all their customers stuff?

Taking into consideration the inverse square law, which says that at double the distance only one FOURTH of energy can be received/discerned, how far away could the planes be seen before they faded, or showed signs of visual distortion? Ten blocks? Ten miles?

Please explain the satellite photos showing the resulting smoke and dust after the towers fell.

The first holograms I ever saw was red, created from a ruby laser. In later years there have been distorted color holograms, which some might remember from the movie "Logan's Run". Those holograms were made on cylindrical slide film. How did the WTC holograms appear in the atmosphere? How could they represent natural color?

Do holograms reflect sunlight or shadow?

How could a hologram be seen from so many angles? Are they truly 360 degree capable?

Seeing as how "Rob" said you could see the projector on the bottom, could anyone have seen the hologram from above? Could anyone on the top floors of the WTC seen the plane coming, since from their vantage point the plane would have been below them?

Could the hologram have been seen through a telescope, or a telescopic camera lens? If so, were they solid or distorted or halfway see through?

How do holograms look when the negatives from the news film cameras are enlarged? Spatial distortion? Pincushion? Chroma distortion? Sprectral shift?

*************

I'd say your credibility is on the line, and you've got work to do.



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addenda
by this name is mine, I tell you! Wednesday, Nov. 12, 2003 at 9:00 PM

This is your bonus question.

Did you know that by their very nature holograms are such that if a hologram was recorded on a photographic piece of glass, and you broke the glass in a million pieces, you can still recreate the complete image off of any shard???

All one needs to do is find one scrap of that holographic "plane", and we can recreate the whole damn thing. Ragheaded pilots, passengers, baggage, fuel, black boxes, those chintzy little bags of peanuts, the holographic projector on the bottom….

You see where I'm going? We can trace the plane back to the COINTELPRO ™ Factory at Area 51! I suggest you hie thee ass hence to Manhattan, get on your hands and knees, and….and….and…. squeal like a pig, boy!

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take me seriously
by town crier Thursday, Nov. 27, 2003 at 8:24 AM

America hating bump to the top.

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Or Else
by Town Cry Baby Thursday, Nov. 27, 2003 at 7:24 PM

Or else I will bring my loud town crier whining to a neighborhood near you and scream outside your window. I used to do this in Market Square and really really annoy people because you really could not understand a word I was saying because I was so loud (kind of like my posts here at IMC). But then someone stole my town crier suit. Probably the same troll that stole my name.

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identity theft
by BraveNewExtortionist Thursday, Nov. 27, 2003 at 8:32 PM

So how much ya willing to pay to get yer name back?

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where am I?
by BraveNewWorldOrderFighter Tuesday, Dec. 02, 2003 at 2:02 PM

MSNBC finally gave in to the Bush administration and took away the image I was so obsessed with. I'm in a rage, so much so that I haven't made a post in a couple of weeks.

Maybe I don't exist anymore. Maybe I was the hologram all along.

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I'm back
by BraveNewWorldOrderFighter Sunday, Dec. 28, 2003 at 11:22 AM

version

CALCULATIONS SAY AT LEAST 14 TONS OF HIGH EXPLOSIVE NEEDED TO BRING DOWN EACH WTC TOWER.
by Jim Hoffman Wednesday December 17, 2003 at 03:56 PM

Estimates of the WTC dust cloud expansion are used to provide a lower bound for the quantity of explosives used to bring down the towers.

The North Tower's Dust Cloud

Analysis of Energy Requirements for the Expansion of the
Dust Cloud following the Collapse of 1 World Trade Center

by Jim Hoffman, October 16th, 2003
[Version 3.0]

Abstract

This paper uses photographic evidence -- primarily a reference photograph taken from FEMA's report -- to estimate the volume of the dust cloud that grew from the collapse of the North Tower at about 30 seconds after the commencement of the collapse. The paper then estimates the thermal energy required to produce the observed expansion in the volume of the dust cloud, based on the assumption that most of the gasses and suspended solids in the cloud originated from within the building.

The most recent version of the paper identifies two major mechanisms for the expansion -- thermodynamic expansion of gasses due to increases in temperature, and expansion due to the vaporization of water. Both represent vast energy sinks. Whatever the relative contributions of these mechanisms to the expansion, the required energy inputs far exceeds the energy available in the form of the gravitational potential energy due to the tower's elevated mass.

Previous versions of the paper did not consider expansion due to water vaporization, and considered only thermodynamic expansion of gasses present in the building at the time of collapse. That required average dust cloud temperatures of around 1000 K, a feature several people found implausible. The addition of the heat of water vaporization to the analysis changes the picture dramatically. The heat energy requirements are similar, but the temperatures need not have been anywhere near 1000 K, since the phase change of water to steam occurs at 100 C.

The paper shows a large disparity between the energy required to produce the observed expansion of the dust cloud and that available from the conversion of all the tower's gravitational potential energy to heat. It does not consider the possible energy source of the unlikely rapid combustion of the tower's contents during its collapse, but even the energy available from consuming all of the oxygen in the tower to burn hydrocarbons is far short of the estimated size of the energy sink of dust cloud expansion.

On September 11th, both of the Twin Towers disintegrated into vast clouds of concrete and other materials, which blanketed Lower Manhattan. This paper shows that the energy required to produce the expansion of the dust cloud observed immediately following the collapse of 1 World Trade Center (the North Tower) was much greater than the gravitational energy available from its elevated mass. It uses only basic physics.

Introduction

Vast amounts of energy were released during the collapse of each of the Twin Towers in Lower Manhattan on September 11th, 2001. The accepted source of this energy was the gravitational potential energy of the towers, which was far greater than the energy released by the fires that preceded the collapses. The magnitude of that source cannot be determined with much precision thanks to the secrecy surrounding details of the towers' construction. However, FEMA's Building Performance Assessment Report gives an estimate [Ref. (1)]: "Construction of WTC 1 resulted in the storage of more than 4 x 1011 joules of potential energy over the 1,368-foot height of the structure. "That is equal to about 111,000 KWH (kilowatt hours) per tower.

Of the many identifiable energy sinks in the collapses, one of the only ones that has been subjected to quantitative analysis is the thorough pulverization of the concrete in the towers. It is well documented that nearly all of the non-metallic constituents of the towers were pulverized into fine powder. The largest of these constituents by weight was the concrete that constituted the floor slabs of the towers. Jerry Russell estimated that the amount of energy required to crush concrete to 60 micron powder is about 1.5 KWH/ton. [Ref. (2)]. That paper incorrectly assumes there were 600,000 tons of concrete in each tower, but Russell later provided a more accurate estimate of 90,000 tons of concrete per tower, based on FEMA's description of the towers' construction. That estimate implies the energy sink of concrete pulverization was on the order of 135,000 KWH per tower, which is already larger than the energy source of gravitational energy. However, the size of this sink is critically dependent on the fineness of the concrete powder, and on mechanical characteristics of the lightweight concrete thought to have been used in the towers. Available statistics about particle sizes of the dust, such as the study by Paul J. Lioy, et al [Ref. (3)], characterize particle sizes of aggregate dust samples, not of its constituents, such as concrete, fiberglass, hydrocarbon soot, etc. Based on diverse evidence, 60 microns would appear to be a high estimate for average concrete particle size, suggesting 135,000 KWH is a conservative estimate for the magnitude of the sink.

A second energy sink, that has apparently been overlooked, was many times the magnitude of the gravitational energy: the energy needed to expand the dust clouds to several times the volume of each tower within 30 seconds of the onset of their collapses. Note that the contents of the dust clouds had to come from building constituents -- gases and materials inside of or intrinsic to the building -- modulo any mixing with outside air. Given that the Twin Towers' dust clouds behaved like pyroclastic flows, with distinct boundaries and rapidly expanding frontiers (averaging perhaps 35 feet/second on the ground for the first 30 seconds), it is doubtful that mixing with ambient air accounted for a significant fraction of their volume. Therefore the dust clouds' expansion must have been primarily due to an expansion of building constituents. Possible sources of expansion include:

  • thermodynamic expansion of gases
  • vaporization of liquids and solids
  • chemical reactions resulting in a net increase in gaseous phase molecules That is explosives.
The evidence does not support the idea that chemical reactions in the dust cloud liberated vast quantities of gases.

Actually, the evidence does support the use of explosives to collapse the towers [Ref. (4)].

That leaves increases in gas temperatures and vaporization of solids and liquids, primarily water, to drive the expansion.

How much heat energy was involved in expanding the dust clouds? To calculate the energy we need to answer three questions:

  1. What was the volume of the dust clouds from a collapse at some time soon after it started (before the clouds began to diffuse)?
  2. How did the mixing of the dust cloud with ambient air contribute to its size, and how can this be factored out to obtain the volume occupied by gases and suspended materials originally inside the building?
  3. What is the ratio of that volume to the volume of the intact building?
  4. How much heat energy was required to produce that ratio of expansion?

Since I have better photographs for North Tower dust, I did the calculation for it.

1. Quantifying Dust Cloud Volume

To answer question 1, I made estimates based on photographs taken at approximately 30 seconds after the onset of the collapse. The photo in Figure 1 appears to have been taken around 30 seconds after the initiation of the collapse of the North Tower. The fact that the spire is visible directly behind Building 7 indicates the photo was not taken later than the 30 seconds, since video records show that the spire started to collapse at the around 29 seconds. In this photograph, as in other ones taken around that time, the dust clouds still have distinct boundaries.


The WTC Dust Cloud

Figure 1. Photograph from Chapter 5 of FEMA's Building Performance Assessment Report


I used landmarks in this photo to make several approximate measurements of the frontier of the dust cloud. The following table lists some of them. Measurements are in feet. The first column lists heights above the street, and the second lists distances from the vertical axis of the North Tower.


LabelHeightDistanceDescription
32301011West corner of 45 Park Place
5228729Top of south corner of building with stepped roof
6204658East corner of Building 7, 30 stories below top
7600776Upwell towering over southeast end of Post Office
8700?Upwell slightly higher than the top of Building 7
11190870Top of west corner of 22 Cortland St tower
125085888 stories below top of face of WFC 3
134985173 stories below top of upper face of WFC 2


To approximate the volume I used a cylinder, coaxial with the vertical axis of the North Tower, with a radius of 800 feet, and a height of 200 feet. All the above reference points lie outside of this volume. Although the cylinder does not lie entirely within the dust cloud, there are large parts of the cloud outside of it, such as the 700 foot high upwelling column south of Building 7. The cylinder has a volume of:

pi x (800 feet)2 x 200 feet = 402,000,000 feet3.

I subtract about a quarter for volume occupied by other buildings, giving 300,000,000 feet3.

2. Factoring out Mixing and Diffusion

To accurately answer question 2 would require detailed knowledge of the fluid dynamics involved. However it does appear that for at least a minute, the dust cloud behaved as a separate fluid from the ambient air, maintaining a distinct boundary. There are several pieces of evidence that support this:

  • The WTC dust clouds inexorably advanced down streets at around 25 MPH. This is far faster than can be explained by mixing and diffusion.
  • As the dust clouds advanced outward, features on their frontiers evolved relatively slowly compared to the clouds' rates of advance. This indicates that that clouds were expanding from within and that if surface turbulence was incorporating ambient air, it's contribution to expansion was minor.
  • The top surface of the clouds looked like the surface of a boiling viscous liquid - churning but not mixing with the air above. Sinking portions of the clouds were replaced by clear air, not a mixture of the cloud and air.
  • The dust clouds maintained distinct interfaces for well over a minute. Mixing and diffusion would have produced diffuse interfaces.
  • There are reports of people being picked up and carried distances by the South Tower dust cloud, which felt solid. New York Daily News photographer David Handschuh recalled:

    Instinctively I lifted the camera up, and something took over that probably saved my life. And that was [an urge] to run rather than take pictures. I got down to the end of the block and turned the corner when a wave -- a hot, solid, black wave of heat threw me down the block. It literally picked me up off my feet and I wound up about a block away.
Initially the dust clouds must have been much heavier than air, given the mass of the concrete they carried and the distances they transported it. As time went on the cloud became more diffuse, but all of the photographs that can be verified as being within the first minute show opaque clouds with distinct boundaries, indicating the dominant mode of growth was expansion, not mixing or diffusion. It seems reasonable to assume that mixing with ambient air did not account for a significant fraction of the expansion in the volume of the dust cloud by 30 seconds of the start of the North Tower collapse. Nevertheless, I reduce the estimate of the dust cloud volume of building origin to 200,000,000 feet3, imagining that a third of the growth may have been due to assimilation of ambient air.

3. Computing the Expansion Ratio

The answer to question 3 is easy. The volume of a tower, with it's 207 foot width and 1368 foot height, is:

1368 feet x 207 feet x 207 feet = 58,617,432 feet3.

So the ratio of the expanded gasses and suspended materials from the tower to the original volume of the tower is:

200,000,000 feet3 / 58,617,432 feet3 = 3.41.

4. Computing the Required Heat Input

Above I identified two energy sinks that could have driven expansion of the dust cloud: thermodynamic expansion of gases, and vaporization of liquids and solids. Since most constituents and contents of the building other than water would require very high temperatures to vaporize, I consider only the vaporization of water in evaluating the second sink.

It is clearly not possible to determine with any precision the relative contributions of these two sinks to the expansion of the dust cloud. If the cloud remained uniform in temperature and density for the first 30 seconds, then the expansion would consist of three distinct phases:

  • The temperature would increase to 100 C, accompanied by thermodynamic expansion.
  • The temperature would remain at 100 C until all of the water was vaporized.
  • The temperature would increase above 100 C, again accompanied by thermodynamic expansion.
Since such uniform conditions were not present, I will first treat the two energy sinks separately, and will compute the energy requirements for each if it alone were responsible for the expansion.

4.1. The Thermodynamic Expansion Sink

The ideal gas law can be used to compute a lower bound for the amount of heat energy required to induce the observed expansion of the dust cloud, assuming that the expansion was entirely due to thermodynamic expansion. That law states that the product of the volume and pressure of a parcel of a gas is proportional to absolute temperature. It is written PV = nRT, where:

P = pressure
V = volume
T = absolute temperature
n = molar quantity
R = constant

Absolute temperature is expressed in Kelvin (K), which is Celsius + 273. Applied to the tower collapse, the equation holds that the ratio of volumes of gasses from the building before and after expansion is roughly equal to the ratio of temperatures of the gasses before and after heating. That allows us to compute the minimum energy needed to achieve a given expansion ratio knowing only the thermal mass of the gasses and their average temperature before the collapse.

I say that the ideal gas law allows the computation of only the lower bound of the required energy input due to the following four factors.

  • The finite size of molecules leads to a slight departure from the ideal gas law wherein the expansion of a parcel of gas leads to a decrease in its temperature. This means that slightly more heat energy is needed to achieve a given expansion ratio than is predicted by the ideal gas law.
  • The dust cloud at the time of the photograph used to estimate its volume had not finished expanding. Videos show that it continued to expand well after the 1 minute mark.
  • The suspended dust in the cloud had many times the mass of the gasses. This increased the energy needed to expand the dust cloud since it takes energy to lift and accelerate mass.
  • The suspended dust in the cloud had many times the thermal mass of the gasses. Increasing in temperature of the dust cloud to a level needed to induce the observed expansion entailed raising the temperature of the gasses and suspended solids by similar amounts. Since the solids had many times the thermal capacity of the gasses, this multiplied the energy requirements.

In this paper I examine only the fourth factor. Before considering its effect on energy requirements, I first consider the energy requirements of heating only the gasses in the clouds to the level needed to achieve the observed expansion.

According to the ideal gas law, expanding the gasses 3.4-fold requires raising their absolute temperature by the same ratio. If we assume the tower was at 300 degrees K before the collapse, then the target temperature would be 1020 degrees K, an increase of 720 degrees.

Of course, this begs the question: What was the source of energy that heated the debris cloud from 298 K (25 C) to 1020 degrees K?

Given a density of 36 g/foot3 for air, the tower held about 2,000,000,000 g of air. Air has a specific heat of 0.24 (relative to 1 for water), so one calorie will raise one g of air 1 / 0.24 = 4.16 degrees. To raise 2,000,000,000 g by 720 degrees requires:

2,000,000,000 g x 720 degrees x 0.24 = 345,600,000,000 calories = 399,500 KWH

To evaluate the energy requirements of the fourth factor, it is necessary to consider the composition of the dust cloud. The cloud was a suspension of fine particles of concrete and other solids in gasses consisting mostly of air. Since concrete was the dominant solid, I will ignore the others, which included glass, gypsum, asbestos, and various hydrocarbons. The small size of the particles, being in the 10-60 micron range, would assure rapid equalization between their temperature and that of the embedding air. Therefore any heat source acting to raise the temperature of the air would have to raise the temperature of the suspended concrete by the same amount. Assuming all 90,000,000,000 g of concrete was raised 720 degrees (300 K to 1020 K), the necessary heat, given a specific heat of concrete of 0.15 is:

90,000,000,000 g x 720 degrees x 0.15 = 9,720,000,000,000 calories = 11,300,000 KWH.

If we assume that the water vaporization sink absorbed all available energy once temperatures reached water's boiling point, we can compute the size of the heat sink of thermodynamic expansion that was in play up to 100 C, or 373 K:

2,000,000,000 g x 73 degrees x 0.24 = 35,040,000,000 calories = 40,744 KWH

The associated sink of heating the suspended solids to this temperature would be:

90,000,000,000 g x 73 degrees x 0.15 = 985,500,000,000 calories = 1,145,000 KWH.

4.2. The Water Vaporization Sink

At 100 C at sea-level, water expands by a factor of 1680 when converted to steam.

Of course, this begs many questions, prominent being:

  1. What was the source of energy that heated the building to 100 degrees C?
  2. Was there enough time for the building to reach 100 degrees C before the collapses?
  3. How much of the water in the concrete slab is able to escape as the slab is heated to 100 degrees C?
Hence it is reasonable to expect that water in the building accounted for a significant part of the expansion.

This is only reasonable if the concrete has already been pulverized, and if this is so, begs the question: What pulverized it?

How much energy would be required to expand the volume of the cloud by the 3.41 ratio if water vaporization were entirely responsible for the expansion? Since water vaporization involves the introduction of volumes of steam from comparatively negligible volumes of water, I assume that all the incremental volume was occupied by steam. The estimated 3.41 expansion ratio means that the incremental volume was:

200,000,000 feet3 - 58,617,000 feet3 = 141,383,000 feet3 = 4,003,542,000 liters

Given the 1680 to 1 ratio between the volume steam and water, 2,383,000 liters of water would have been required. The heat of vaporization of water is 540 calories/gram at 100 C. Therefore the heat energy required to produce the expansion is:

2,383,000,000 g x 540 = 1,286,820,000,000 calories = 1,496,000 KWH

Was there enough water in the building for this sink to be anywhere near this large? That is a matter of great uncertainty. Even well-cured concrete has a significant moisture content. Assuming that the estimated 90,000 tons of concrete in the tower was 1 percent water by weight, that would have provided 900 tons of water or about 900,000 liters -- well short of the 2,383,000 liter estimate above.

This is somewhat misleading. Well-cured concrete is indeed about 1 percent FREE water, but concrete is also about 7-20 percent chemically bound water. The free water evaporates from concrete at 100 - 150 C, whilst chemically bound water remains until temperatures of 450 C [Ref. (5)].

So it turns out that there is more than enough water to account for the expansion (as long as the concrete reaches temperatures of about 450 C).

However, there is a large amount of uncertainty in the water content of the concrete, which, like the rest of the remains of the disaster was apparently disposed of with little or no examination. Moreover there were other sources of water in the building, such as the plumbing system, which could have accounted for tens of thousands of liters, and, gruesomely, people. The thousand victims never identified could have accounted for about 30,000 liters of water.

4.3. Which Energy Sink Was Dominant?

Both thermodynamic expansion and water vaporization have the capacity to produce vast expansion in gas volume given sufficient heat.

Explosives would produce vast expansions of gas on detonation.
Explosives would produce vast quantities of concrete particles.
Explosives would also produce vast quantities of heat.
Vast quantities of heat applied to the concrete particles might cause the release of some of the chemically bound water, which would contribute to a breakup the particles, reducing them to a fine dust.

Two major difference in the features of these sinks may help in understanding the relative contributions of each. First, thermodynamic expansion to the observed ratio requires very high temperatures, whereas vaporization-driven expansion occurs at a constant temperature of 100 C. Second, vaporization-driven expansion would be limited by the available supply of water.

If all the expansion was due to thermodynamic expansion, it would require that the dust cloud was heated to an average temperature of about 1020 K. Certainly the temperatures of the cloud near the ground were no-where near that high. Eyewitness reports show that the cloud's ground-level temperatures more than a few hundred feet away from its center were humanly survivable. Most of these reports are from the South Tower collapse, and it is unclear how similar the dust cloud temperatures following the two collapses were. Although serious fires raged in Buildings 4, 5, and 6, other nearby buildings that suffered extensive window breakage from the tower collapses, such as the Banker's Trust Building, and Word Financial Center Buildings 1, 2, and 3, did not experience fires. Digital photographs and videos show a bright afterglow with a locus near the center of the cloud, commencing around 17 seconds after the onset of the North Tower's collapse. Once the afterglow started, the cloud developed large upwelling columns towering to over 600 feet, and the previously gray cloud appeared to glow with a reddish hue. This suggests that at least the upper and central regions of the North Tower cloud reached very high temperatures, but the evidence is insufficient to draw even general quantitative conclusions about the ranges and distributions of temperatures.

If enough water was present for vaporization to drive most of the expansion, temperatures in much of the cloud would have remained around 100 C until most of the water had vaporized. Thermodynamic expansion would occur in regions with liquid phase water until 100 C was reached, and again after the water was vaporized.

To the extent that thermodynamic expansion was the dominant factor driving the expansion, the distribution of concrete dust in the cloud, and its relationship to the temperature distribution in the cloud, would greatly affect the total energy requirements. Less energy would be required if the hotter portions of the cloud had a lower density of dust. The density was probably greater toward the central portions of the cloud, which also seem to have experienced the most heating. On the other hand, much of the dust may have settled out by the 30 second mark. The violent churning of the cloud, and the opaque appearance of its frontier, suggest that most of the dust had not settled that early.

The Unexplored Option -- Explosives.

We will consider the explosive amatol which is a mixture of trinitrotoluene (TNT) and ammonium nitrate (AN).


Trinitrotoluene (left) has the chemical composition C7H5(NO2)3 and ammonium nitrate (right) has the chemical composition NH4NO3.

We choose the TNT to AN molar ratio in the amatol mixture to be 4 : 42.
This translates to a 4 x 227 : 42 x 80 = 908 : 3360 = 21 : 79 ratio by weight.

In this case the explosion proceeds according to the equation:

4 C7H5(NO2)3 + 42 NH4NO3 => 28 CO2 + 94 H2O + 48 N2

From the equation we see that 4 moles of TNT and 42 moles of AN produces 28 + 94 + 48 = 170 moles of gaseous product.

At standard temperature and pressure, 170 moles of gas occupies 170 x 22.4 = 3,808 liters. This is the volume that the explosion products would occupy if, after the explosion, they were cooled to 25 C (with the assumption that the water remains a vapor). In order to calculate the volume of the hot gaseous products generated by the explosion, we initially need to know the amount of heat released by the explosion of 4 moles of TNT and 42 moles of AN. We also need to know the amount of heat required to raise each of the gases, by one degree K. That is, we need to know the enthalpy of explosion ΔexplosionH and the heat capacities Cp (also known as specific heats) of each of the gases.

ΔexplosionH = - [4 Δfsolid(TNT) + 21 Δfsolid(AN)] + [28 Δfgas(CO2) + 94 Δfgas(H2O) + 48 Δfgas(N2)]
= - [4(-60) + 21(-365.5)] + [28(-393.5) + 94(-242) + 48(0.00)]
=   240 + 7,675.5 - 11,018 - 22,748
= - 25,850 kJ per 4 moles of TNT and 42 moles of AN.

Here we have used the following facts:

Δfgas(H2O) = -242 kJ/mol
Δfgas(CO) = -110.5 kJ/mol
Δfgas(CO2) = -393.5 kJ/mol
Δfsolid(TNT) = -60 kJ/mol
Δfsolid(AN) = -365.5 kJ/mol

The heat capacities Cp for the gases involved are:

Cpgas (N2) = 28.87 J/mol*K
Cpgas (O2) = 28.91 J/mol*K
Cpgas (H2O) = 30.43 J/mol*K
Cpgas (CO2) = 37.12 J/mol*K

Since the heat capacities are all approximately 30 J/mol*K, we will assume this value for all the gases, i.e., we assume:

Cpgas (all relevant gases) = 30 J/mol*K

So, by assumption, 30 joules of energy will raise the temperature of one mole of the gaseous product (of the explosion) by 1 degree K.

Summarizing from earlier, we have that 4 moles of TNT and 42 moles of AN,
  1. produces 170 moles of gaseous product and
  2. liberates 25,850 kJ of energy.
We will assume that the original 170 moles of explosion products mix with N moles of air.

This 170 + N mole mixture of gases is initially assumed to be at the temperature T0 = 298 degrees K (25 C).
This 170 + N mole mixture of gases has an initial volume of V0 = 22.4 (170 + N) liters.

We calculate the increase in temperature ΔT of this 170 + N moles of gases after being heated by the 25,850 kJ of energy released by the explosion of the 4 moles of TNT and 42 moles of AN.

Now 30 joules raises the temperature of one mole of the gases by 1 degree K.
Hence, 25,850,000 joules raises the temperature of the 170 + N moles by

ΔT = 25,850,000/(30 x (170 + N)).

We now calculate the volume V1 of this 170 + N moles of gas after being heated by the explosion to the temperature

T1 = T0 + ΔT

From the ideal gas law we have that V1 / V0 = T1 / T0.  Rearranging we obtain

V1 = V0 (T1 / T0) = V0 (T0 + ΔT) / T0 = V0 + V0 ΔT / T0.  On substituting we obtain

V1 = V0 + 22.4 x (170 + N) x 25,850,000 / (30 x (170 + N) x 298) = V0 + 22.4 x 25,850,000 / (30 x 298) = V0 + 64,770 liters.

Hence, the increase in volume of the mixture of gases ΔV = V1 - V0 = 64,770 liters.

So, summing up, the explosion of 4 moles of TNT and 42 moles of AN produce 64,770 + 22.4 x 170 = 64,770 + 3,808 = 68,578 liters of hot gases.
That is, the explosion of 4,268 grams of amatol produces 68,578 liters of hot gases.
That is, the explosion of one kilogram of amatol produces 68,578 x 1,000 / 4,268 = 16,068 liters of hot gaseous product.

Hence the 200,000,000 liter expansion calculated by Hoffman can be explained by the detonation of

200,000,000/16,068 = 12,447 kg = 12.5 tonnes (14 tons) of the high explosive amatol.

Summary

The 200,000,000 liter expansion calculated by Hoffman can be explained by the detonation of 12.5 tonnes (14 tons) of the high explosive amatol.

The dominant energy source assumed to be in play during the leveling of each of the Twin Towers was the gravitational energy due to its elevated mass, whereas the energy sinks included the pulverization of it's concrete, the vaporization of water, and the heating of the concrete and air in the ensuing dust cloud. Estimates for these energies are:


 Energy, KWH Source or Sink
 + 111,000falling of mass (1.97 x 1011 g falling average of 207 m)
 - 135,000crushing of concrete (9 x 1010 g to 60 micron powder)
    Ignoring Water Vaporization
 - 400,000heating of gasses (2 x 109 g air from 300 to 1020 K)
 - 11,300,000heating of suspended concrete (9 x 1010 g from 300 to 1020 K)
    Assuming Water Vaporization Sink was not Supply-Limited
 - 1,496,000vaporization of water (2.389 g water)
 - 41,000heating of gasses (2 x 109 g air from 300 to 373 K)
 - 1,145,000heating of suspended concrete (9 x 1010 g from 300 to 373 K)


The imbalance between sources and sinks is striking, no matter the relative shares of the thermodynamic and water vaporization sinks in accounting for the expansion. Moreover, it is very difficult to imagine how the gravitational energy released by falling mass could have contributed much to any of the sinks, since the vast majority of the tower's mass landed outside its footprint. The quantity for the crushing of concrete appears to be conservative since some reports indicate the average particle size was closer to 10 microns. The quantity for the heating of suspended concrete has a large amount of uncertainty, but the energy imbalances remain huge even when it is ignored entirely. All of these energy sink estimates are conservative in several respects.
  • It is based on an estimate of dust cloud volume at a time long before the cloud stopped growing.
  • It uses a liberal estimate of the contribution of mixing to the volume.
  • It ignores thermal losses due to radiation.
The calculation also ignores the role the mass of the suspended materials in impeding the expansion of cloud and thereby increasing the required energy.

Conclusion

The amount of energy required to expand the North Tower's dust cloud was many times the entire potential energy of the tower's elevated mass due to gravity. The over 10-fold disparity between the most conservative estimate and the gravitational energy is not easily dismissed as reflecting uncertainties in quantitative assessments.

The official explanation that the Twin Tower collapses were gravity-driven events appears insufficient to account for the documented energy flows.

However, the use of explosives explains all the observed facts, and is thus probably the correct explanation.

References

  1. http://members.fortunecity.com/911/wtc/WTC_ch1.htm
  2. http://www.911-strike.com/powder.htm
  3. http://ehpnet1.niehs.nih.gov/docs/2002/110p703-714lioy/abstract.html
  4. http://members.fortunecity.com/911/wtc/tower-explosions.htm
  5. http://members.fortunecity.com/911/fire/SLamont.htm

Revision History

The paper is now in its third version. A complete version history is archived here.

Version 2 adopts much smaller estimates of concrete and total building mass, and refines the argument that mixing could not have accounted for much of the expansion. Version 3 considers a source of expansion ignored in the earlier versions -- the vaporization of water.

Acknowledgements

I wish to thank Jerry Russell, proprietor of www.911-strike.com, for his work on the physics of the World Trade Center collapses, work which was invaluable in the development of my thermodynamics analysis.

This article by J. Hoffman is a deliberate attempt to divert your attention from the fact that explosives were used to bring down the WTC towers. By presenting a possible explanation for the debris cloud without considering explosives, he is implicitly stating that he, as an expert in the field, does not consider explosives an option, so why should you? He is deliberately pointing you in the wrong direction.

As for the web-site http://physics911.org. It is generally of poor quality, is full of misinformation, and has very few contributors. It is clearly a site designed to miss-direct and cover-up for the official media/government conspiracy theory.

"The best way to control the opposition is to lead it ourselves." V. I. Lenin.

The comment in red has been added to the original article.

http://physics911.org/net/modules/news/article.php?storyid=12

physics911.org/net/modules/news/article.php?storyid=12

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IT WAS ALL A LIE !!!
by SameOldAnalCranialInversion Sunday, Dec. 28, 2003 at 3:54 PM

And I have the scientific proof, complete with my high school chemistry class lab notes, that proves that Osama Bin Laden is an innocent patsy, just like Lee Harvy Oswald. Hey, did you ever notice that all of these patsies for the U.S. Government have three names. Three !! I said threee !!! Did you hear me ?? Three Names. Do you realize the significance of this. But Bush 1 had four names. Four !!! Count them --- George (1) Herbert (2) Walker (3) Bush (4). That's four. What do you get when you add 3 and 4? Seven. I said SEVEN !!! And what does seven always go with? Eleven. Seven Eleven. Now you see it, right? Seven Eleven. That's *7-11* and that looks alot like *9-11*. Is it any coincidence that all of the 7-11s are owned by foreigners. The 7-11's sell gas. What do they make gas from? OIL !!! George Bush and his Texas Enron pals went to war for oil and want all of the 7-11 franchises. That's what I have been trying to tell you sheeple. WAKE UP !!! George Bush Must be Stopped Now !!! We have to rise up. Doesn't this infuriate you? My God, my teeth are clench onto the P-G Front page in an agree fit of rage. I tried to tell them, but they just threw me out. I was a respected reporter, I tell you. They censored me. Now the NSA and George Bush's dog monitor my every movement. I AM RISKING MY LIFE TO TRY TO SAVE YOU ALL !!! My underpants are twisted in an awkward way. That causes me to scrunch up my face like Jimmy Page. Then suddenly, without warning, I clench my fists around my ankles make my thighs thunder with rage.

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Jim Hoffman = AssHat
by George K. Monday, Dec. 29, 2003 at 8:13 AM
dodgerambler@yahoo.com

Jim,
I breezed through your so called "paper" that used photographic evidence to prove the use of explosives. You are obviously not a scientist and never will be. Stick to making tinfoil hats, dude. Any cock-jockey can cut and paste impressive-looking chemistry nomenclature into a post, but you have demonstrated that you and whatever other authors do not understand what is cobbled together.
Get a life.

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Jim Hoffman = AssHat
by George K. Monday, Dec. 29, 2003 at 8:13 AM
dodgerambler@yahoo.com

Jim,
I breezed through your so called "paper" that used photographic evidence to prove the use of explosives. You are obviously not a scientist and never will be. Stick to making tinfoil hats, dude. Any cock-jockey can cut and paste impressive-looking chemistry nomenclature into a post, but you have demonstrated that you and whatever other authors do not understand what is cobbled together.
Get a life.

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Jim Hoffman = AssHat
by George K. Monday, Dec. 29, 2003 at 8:14 AM
dodgerambler@yahoo.com

Jim,
I breezed through your so called "paper" that used photographic evidence to prove the use of explosives. You are obviously not a scientist and never will be. Stick to making tinfoil hats, dude. Any cock-jockey can cut and paste impressive-looking chemistry nomenclature into a post, but you have demonstrated that you and whatever other authors do not understand what is cobbled together.
Get a life.

add your comments


Jim Hoffman = AssHat
by George K. Monday, Dec. 29, 2003 at 8:15 AM
dodgerambler@yahoo.com

Jim,
I breezed through your so called "paper" that used photographic evidence to prove the use of explosives. You are obviously not a scientist and never will be. Stick to making tinfoil hats, dude. Any cock-jockey can cut and paste impressive-looking chemistry nomenclature into a post, but you have demonstrated that you and whatever other authors do not understand what is cobbled together.
Get a life.

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Geo. K. - Ass-Typist
by :)> Monday, Dec. 29, 2003 at 8:58 AM

Get A Grip Man, and learn how to HIT THE *PUBLISH* BUTTON ONLY ONCE !!!!!!!

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George types well
by Darwin Monday, Dec. 29, 2003 at 9:51 AM

Given his lack of opposable thumbs, backbone and his walnut sized brain.

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hit the button once
by herve Monday, Dec. 29, 2003 at 11:04 AM

I don't like this new imc software. it's SLOW! and it takes more clicks to get back to your page.

bring back the old software. this sucks

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they're coming to take us away!
by peterO Monday, Dec. 29, 2003 at 12:39 PM

Thank you very much for RISKING your lives to bring to the publics attention all the CRIMES that GW41 and GW43 are committing against our great country and the WORLD! all free people of the earth must go out into the streets and blow a kazoo to show our anger! this really pisses me and my uncle off. he's drunk most the time and he smokes crack but he's a patriot just like you guys!!!!!

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they're coming to take us away!
by peterO Monday, Dec. 29, 2003 at 12:39 PM

Thank you very much for RISKING your lives to bring to the publics attention all the CRIMES that GW41 and GW43 are committing against our great country and the WORLD! all free people of the earth must go out into the streets and blow a kazoo to show our anger! this really pisses me and my uncle off. he's drunk most the time and he smokes crack but he's a patriot just like you guys!!!!!

add your comments


they're coming to take us away!
by peterO Monday, Dec. 29, 2003 at 12:39 PM

Thank you very much for RISKING your lives to bring to the publics attention all the CRIMES that GW41 and GW43 are committing against our great country and the WORLD! all free people of the earth must go out into the streets and blow a kazoo to show our anger! this really pisses me and my uncle off. he's drunk most the time and he smokes crack but he's a patriot just like you guys!!!!!

add your comments


they're coming to take us away!
by peterO Monday, Dec. 29, 2003 at 12:39 PM

Thank you very much for RISKING your lives to bring to the publics attention all the CRIMES that GW41 and GW43 are committing against our great country and the WORLD! all free people of the earth must go out into the streets and blow a kazoo to show our anger! this really pisses me and my uncle off. he's drunk most the time and he smokes crack but he's a patriot just like you guys!!!!!

add your comments


they're coming to take us away!
by peterO Monday, Dec. 29, 2003 at 12:40 PM

Thank you very much for RISKING your lives to bring to the publics attention all the CRIMES that GW41 and GW43 are committing against our great country and the WORLD! all free people of the earth must go out into the streets and blow a kazoo to show our anger! this really pisses me and my uncle off. he's drunk most the time and he smokes crack but he's a patriot just like you guys!!!!!

add your comments


Can you spell H-O-L-O-G-R-A-M?
by bumper Sunday, Sep. 11, 2005 at 9:22 PM

Can you spell H-O-L-O-G-R-A-M?

This is so historically idiotic, such a new low even for the incredibly mentally disturbed hippies, that it deserves to be resurrected.

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